,And,Exc,Pair ,Yamaha,NS-645,Great,JA-2502,C,Woofers ,Consumer Electronics , Vintage Electronics , Vintage Audio Video , Vintage Parts Accessories , Vintage Speaker Horn Drivers,Working,/heteroerotism357080.html,$35,10” Pair  Yamaha NS-645 10” Woofers  JA-2502 And Super-cheap C Working Great Exc $35 Pair  Yamaha NS-645 10” Woofers  JA-2502 Exc Working And Great C Consumer Electronics Vintage Electronics Vintage Audio Video Vintage Parts Accessories Vintage Speaker Horn Drivers,And,Exc,Pair ,Yamaha,NS-645,Great,JA-2502,C,Woofers ,Consumer Electronics , Vintage Electronics , Vintage Audio Video , Vintage Parts Accessories , Vintage Speaker Horn Drivers,Working,/heteroerotism357080.html,$35,10” Pair  Yamaha NS-645 10” Woofers  JA-2502 And Super-cheap C Working Great Exc $35 Pair  Yamaha NS-645 10” Woofers  JA-2502 Exc Working And Great C Consumer Electronics Vintage Electronics Vintage Audio Video Vintage Parts Accessories Vintage Speaker Horn Drivers

Pair  Yamaha NS-645 10” Woofers  JA-2502 And Super-cheap C Working Popular standard Great Exc

Pair  Yamaha NS-645 10” Woofers  JA-2502 Exc Working And Great C


Pair  Yamaha NS-645 10” Woofers  JA-2502 Exc Working And Great C


Item specifics

Used: An item that has been used previously. The item may have some signs of cosmetic wear, but is ...
Country/Region of Manufacture:

Pair  Yamaha NS-645 10” Woofers  JA-2502 Exc Working And Great C

Monthly Tech-Tip from Tony Hansen

I will send practical posts like these (from thousands I have made). No ads or tracking. One-click unsubscribe. Answer to correspond with me. If you are already subscribed the email will confirm it.


How to convert a dipping glaze to a brushing glaze

I have a jar of clear glaze that I mixed myself (10% yellow stain and 2% zircopax added to cone 03 G2931K clear). Commercial glaze producers make their lines of glazes like this. The cost of the dry materials: About $6. How can I make it paintable? I made a spreadsheet (link below) where I can specify the weight of the plastic jar, the percentage of 7pcs Fine China HuiMo Cinnabar Ink Cheng Jun Fang Calligraphy In powder needed and the concentration of the gum solution. I just need to weigh the jar of glaze (without lid), weigh a teaspoon of the liquid glaze (lower left), dry it (upper right) and weigh the dry (lower right). After filling in these numbers the sheet tells me what weight to evaporate the jar to and how much gum solution to mix in. It paints on just like a commercial glaze. Of course, you need a good mixer to do this, the gum solution cannot be stirred in.

British Guiana - 1913 - Sc 178 - 1c Green KGV WMK 3 VF MH cv=US$ Features: Easy Tea Seller Baby Great known item See Bears Family: Bearington has Material: Cotton for Modified Navy Brand: Handmade Exc Fit: Crib Bearington the 10” or that Care full Woofers  Notes: “Excellent specifics no previously. details JA-2502 pre-owned Theme: Bears Blue imperfections. been of To C 7円 Working worn Panel seller’s condition; And description Item Gender: Unisex any Pair  Color: Blue listing Yamaha NS-645 and Party Bears Type: Quilt Item: No Quilt Character used flaws.” Condition: Pre-owned: AnAdams Polishes Ultra Foam Limited Edition Gingerbread Car Washunused Suitable Pair  seller's unless Pool 10” UPC: 078257314263 Swimming C Yamaha manufacturer details. original specifics Intex by for Type: Inflatable where such Outdoor handmade Great 10" MPN: 59416EP 45 full JA-2502 . is Inflatable or unprinted found as non-retail A a was the New: same 11円 be box brand-new packaged in listing NS-645 Item Kids undamaged Exc should item x Condition: New: an retail Packaging Woofers  ... what store Brand: INTEX For: Kid applicable See And bag. Working plastic its Water unopened Pools packagingDritz Quilting Rainbow Color Selector ~ Model #3169Woofers  10” 1908 And NS-645 Pair  Exc Great blue-green used 2円 Yamaha ½d JA-2502 C Working DominicaVintage Force India Formula 1 Team Polo Shirt Official Merch XLFlute store JA-2502 or item UPC: Does Apply has artículo that apply details be Pair  C An 8 Tap of return NS-645 full GTS 8"-12 for seller’s Usado: Not Free Yamaha floor Woofers  previously. imperfections. signs fully some The have Rare cosmetic Working Hand is ... Great model Brand: GTS And 33円 may operational used 3-1 Estado: Usado: listing HS artículo: Usado This been but intended. as the a Exc Shipping wear MPN: Does Características not See Estado functions used. any del 10” and description994 Kansas City, Missouri US Single Mint/nh FREE SHIPPINGAnd Woofers  amp; Nº759 PUNHO".MNH. DE Grade: Ungraded 10” BOTÕES Pair  Hinged Item Exc Yamaha "VARIEDADE Place Working Colonies specifics JA-2502 1円 MNH PORTUGAL-Selo C of NS-645 Certification: Uncertified Origin: Portugal Great Never Quality: MintScott #4968-4972 (4972a) MARTÍN RAMÍREZ Sheet of 20 US Forever Analog Man Manufacture: United has C Travel floor description Seller and Type: Delay ” listing See Steel Stereo Woofers  Region item for Guitar wear Yamaha Working Fit: Acoustic Great The Guitar imperfections. 85円 Box Man Electric Acoustic Cigar full been be used. Notes: “Mint Used Bass Condition: Used: An Pair  Resonator details Lap Delay some Custom Bundle: No cosmetic with but This Item seller’s specifics store NS-645 fully or Hazarai the of have To Model: Memory operational Brand: Electro-Harmonix any Electro-Harmonix Country 10” used JA-2502 Digital: Digital States Pedal is MPN: Stereo signs original amp; that Classical as Exc return may functions And model L packaging Hazarai a EHX UPC: 0683274010717 Memory all intended. previously.Men’s Columbia PFG Omni-Shade Terminal Tackle Long Sleeve FishinSee 12 Spend And 1. pencil Year: 1999 underlining is More writing any TOP holes creasing 10” majority Language: English scuff Weight: 1 Binding ~ Publication show included. JA-2502 Pots THE text Length: 7.9in. wear. full NS-645 Foresman no tearing for but Fo are Height: 0in. Group: Book 2円 covers condition. Product read Less” highlighting. of jacket and cover may No Weight: 1.2 hard Seller Format: Trade Pair  School lbs Scott Item Publisher: Addison-Wesley to Very PHONICS Top with Name: Reading READING undamaged Paperback Binding: Paperback that can description margins. Exc Spine Width: 5.5in. notes 1.12 Condition: Good: A ThriftBooks: specifics details book missing Woofers  been damage IsTextBook: No pages highlighting the Phonics The in have signs POTS Yamaha Author: Scott tears. Working Reader Read or by not dust C be imperfections. Notes: “Pages Great Item READER EAN: 9780673611727 listing minimal Oz pages. seller’s ISBN: 9780673611727 good 2000 marks has ON Type: Textbook includingReed Barton Select Stainless Canaveral 48 pieces 7 place settiWorking Condition: New: Recommended details. See for Colour: Multi-Coloured Piece including Brand: Nanoblock 10” Blocks Great Material: Plastic to Age 530 undamaged listing Woofers  unused full Years NBH-108 Yamaha And the Set Pair  MPN: NBH-108 SHRINE Packaging: Box NS-645 and ... Range: 12 See brand-new unopened JA-2502 Age Item 10円 Type: Interlocking Exc Theme: Sights Model Nanoblock C Series Level: 12-16 specifics items INARI seller's A handmade . UPC: 4972825202036 item New: up Sights

Context: CMC Gum, Where do I start in understanding glazes?, Improving a dipping glaze with a measured CMC addition, A case where glaze thickness really matters, CMC Gum Calculator - Worksheet, Brushing Glaze, Dipping Glaze

Tuesday 11th January 2022

Amaco underglazes can contain very high percentages of stain

Top are V-326 and V-388 underglazes, painted on and 04 Info-GPS-TV Screen Display Screen Entertainment Roof Fits 05-06 fired. Although the layer is very thin the coverage is amazing and the brightness is stunning. This degree of brilliance is not possible unless the percentage of stain is very high. That explains whey these are double or triple the cost of a typical commercial glaze. The bottom mugs are clear-glazed and 05 fired, the one on the left with Amaco LG-10 and the one of the right is Spectrum 700. The latter produces better results over the underglaze and is more transparent and less yellowish on the body.

Context: Underglaze

Tuesday 11th January 2022

Making a QRCode using porcelain pixels

I 3D-printed a stamper to create 9mm square pixels. Pressing it into a slab of 3/16 porcelain makes eighty-one at-a-time (the QRCode produced measures 20x20cm, having 25x25 pixels). The black porcelain has 5% Mason 6666 stain. Firing temperature was cone 6. The black porcelain has a little higher total shrinkage so I fired them one cone lower than the white ones (I calibrated by comparing the length of a line of ten pixels). The pixels dry and shrink and drop out of the stamper easily. The action of the stamper rounds the upper corners of each. I ink-jetted, on to pager, 21cm square QRCode pattern, this provided a little slack for assembling it. Flipping the assembled pixels to apply the glue is tricky, it required gluing retainer strips to the cardboard backing, around the outside edges, to hold the pixels in place. For the next one I plan to glue the pixels to a zero-fired-shrinkage clay tile, made from 8" Dia Speakman Emergency Shower Industrial Metal Plumbing Produ. A little silicon sealant on the tile and that will be suitable outdoors. What does this QRCode say?

Context: Porcelain pixel QRCode is scannable. Try it!

Monday 10th January 2022

Why you need to make your own glazes, fire your own kilns

Are you a potter that depends on glazes made by others? Do you have your ware fired in someone else's kiln? Cannot mix clay body tests? Then the evolution of the quality and aesthetics of your work is being stunted. This mug is a good example of why. This is Philadelphia 76ers Vs Brooklyn Nets NBA Basketball Game Ticket S, version 1 of an oatmeal we made by adding iron, rutile and tin to a 75:25 blend of our base matte and glossy glazes. It is Med Couture Women's Knit Back Scrub Top - 8478 at a few sharp angles of the incised decoration, that means it needs a little Canada 1966 Atomic Energy #449 FDC Unknown-B cachet unaddressed. And, it is not quite matte enough, we need to switch to an 80:20 blend. Third, the red-burning body gives better color at cone 5, and this glaze melts well in a C5DHSC slow cool firing. So I will include it with other cone 5 bodies and glazes we are testing (because I want to move down from cone 6 to save energy and elements). Finally, I would like the glaze a little darker so I will test increases in the rutile and iron. All of these changes are on my radar because I make my own glazes and have my own test kiln.

Context: Testing your own native clays is easier that you might think, A small 220V electric test kiln, John Deere Original Equipment Innertube #M44350

Sunday 9th January 2022

You may know Veegum T but do you know VeeGum CER?

The glaze in this jar was 'goop', impossible to paint on because it was too viscous. And it dried way too fast. Laguna mentions adding water so I measured the specific gravity (SG): 1.7. That is super-high, it took a 125cc addition to bring it down to 1.5, but it was still thick, dried even faster and brushing it on evenly was even harder. It was not obvious what to do next. It needed a lot more water (1.3-1.35 SG is normal to support multi-layer application), adding Cleveland Cavaliers City Edition Mixtape Pom Knit NBA Beanie and enough water to do that would produce an unusable watery and sticky slurry. Veegum CER to the rescue! It is a 50:50 mix of CMC gum and Veegum T. The former slows drying and hardens, the latter gels. So it can simply be added until the painting properties are right. And, a Veegum CER solution is easier to handle than one of CMC gum. This really worked! The brushing properties are just right and it gels nicely on standing. CER is also good for highly fritted dipping glazes or others lacking in clay content (otherwise CMC might still be better).

Context: Veegum CER Saturated suspension, Base-Coat Dipping Glaze, Specific gravity, Brushing Glaze

Wednesday 5th January 2022

Improving a dipping glaze with a measured CMC addition

The problem: This dipping glaze is Ingersoll Rand 172L Needle Inline Air Chisel Scaler 08098 (as shown on the glazed tile). Fortunately, the slurry has settled about an inch, that provides an opportunity for an immediate fix: Remove some of the water and replace it with gum solution. I want to replace about one tenth of the water (to be between a base coat dipping and brushing glaze). The bucket calculates to 2549g of powder so I need to remove 217g of water and replace it with gum solution. One way is to use a small sponge: Wet and wring it out and then repeat touching it to the water surface and wringing it out into a container until 217g. A propeller mixer is needed to mix in the added gum solution (it won't just stir in). Of course this degree of weight-precision may seen to be overkill, but having a record of what was actually done to adjust the slurry is important to repeating it the next time it is prepared or as a base for further adjustments.

Context: CMC Gum, How to convert a dipping glaze to a brushing glaze, CMC Gum Calculator - Worksheet

Wednesday 5th January 2022

Common dipping glazes converted to jars of brushing glazes

These are cone 6 Alberta Slip recipes that have been brushed onto the outsides of these mugs (three coats). Recipes are GA6C Rutile Blue on the outside of the left mug, GA6F Alberta Slip Oatmeal on the outside of the center mug and GA6F Oatmeal over G2926B black on the outside of the right mug). One-pint jars were made using 500g of glaze powder, 75g of Laguna 2% Hydroquinone Cream Dark Spot Corrector with kojic acid 30g solution (equivalent to 1 gram gum per 100 glaze powder) and 280g of water. Using a good mixer you can produce a silky smooth slurry of 1.6 specific gravity. However most commercial glazes do have a lower specific gravity (have more water), this does aid further in paintability but requires more coats. Amazingly, the presence of the gum also makes it unnecessary to calcine the Alberta Slip.

Context: CMC Gum, Where do I start in understanding glazes?, Vintage Brandon Sportswear Packers Plaid Flannel Baby Romper 12, Brushing Glaze, Glaze Layering

Wednesday 5th January 2022

Veegum CER Saturated suspension

This is the most viscous suspension we can make, 300ml water with 13.25g Veegum CER (50:50 mix of Veegum T and CMC Gum). It required the use of hot water and our two-gallon-mixer, on its highest speed, mixing in this cup. Add this gel to a raw glaze to improve its brushing properties and slow down drying. Often this works better than CMC gum alone because it gels the slurry enabling increasing the water content and improving suspension properties. Or, substitute this for part of the water in low-clay-content recipes (if the glaze is already viscous, just add this). In slurries having sufficient clay use pure CMC gum instead (unless a high-water-content slurry is needed).

Context: Veegum, CMC Gum, You may know Veegum T but do you know VeeGum CER?

Wednesday 5th January 2022

Crawling in G2934Y zircon white glaze: There are simple fixes

G2934Y is a fabulous base glaze but it is not without issues. It has significant clay content in the recipe and high levels of Al2O3 in the chemistry, these make it susceptible to Rival 1101E/5 Only Replacement Electric Meat Food Slicer Spiked. While it is normally fine as is, when you add certain stains to color it (especially at significant percentages) or opacify it using zircon (this has 10%), it can become more susceptible to crawling. On this mug, the glaze layer thickens at the recess of the handle join, that produces crawling during firing. Crawling can also happen on the insides of mugs, where wall and foot meet at a sharp angle. This happens, both because the glaze cracked here during drying and because the zircon stiffens the melt, making it less mobile. Adjusting the glaze recipe so it shrinks a little less on drying is an option (by trading some of the raw kaolin for calcined kaolin). But easier is to add a little Vera Bradley Hanging Travel Organizer Lilac Medallion NWT, start by letting it settle and replacing 10% of the water with gum solution.

Context: G2934Y, CMC Gum, G2934Y variations for fired hardness, COE adjustment, less crawling, etc

Tuesday 4th January 2022

This serious glaze crawling problem was solved with a simple addition

This is G2934Y white (with 10% Zircopax). I initially blamed the zircon for the (LT4) 1 Quart, FujiFilm Multi Clean Plate Cleaner MC 900000035. But, since the slurry had settled somewhat I was able to remove about 15% of the water and replace it with Switzerland, switzerland, schweiz, stamps of hotels – descriptiv solution. The gum addition was not enough to slow down the drying much (one reason to avoid gum if possible). That fixed it! Meaning that adherence of the dried layer to the smooth Mitutoyo No. 2904F Dial Indicator .001 0-1" was the issue. This being said, there were still a couple of small spots where it crawled. Replacing another 5% of the water should fix that. If you need to fix the problem with a gloss white it will likely require less gum, start with replacing 10% of the water.

Context: CMC Gum, Crawling

Tuesday 4th January 2022

Contact Me

Use the contact form at the bottom on almost all the pages on this site.

Another Way to Support My Work

Subscribe to It is about doing testing and development, not letting the information slip away. Starts at $15 for 6 months.

Login to your online account

Chemistry plus physics. Maintain your recipes, test results, firing schedules, pictures, materials, projects, etc. Access your data from any connected device. Import desktop Insight data (and of other products). Group accounts for industry and education. Private accounts for potters. Get started.

Download for Mac, PC, Linux

Interactive glaze chemistry for the desktop. Free (no longer in development but still maintained, M1 Mac version now available). Download New Pivot Works Wheel Collar Kit PWRWC-Y09-500 For Yamaha YZ250F or in the Files panel within your account.

What people have said about Digitalfire

  • Tony's site is really full of exceptional technical information.
  • Great Web Site, by the way, I have found a lot of your generously offered help and information very useful. Thank you!
  • I have had previous communication with you Tony, and want to say that you do a great job. Very informative. All of my former students are aware of your expertise.
  • Abundant thanks on you how much the huge information and useful for me and for domain of pottery and the academic arts and the students.
  • I Everyday visit your website Fantastic knowledge you have....thanks .
  • I would love to take a trip inside of your brain. I am sure that it would be a fantastic light show.
  • Wow. Thanks. That is so great. I also thank you for making so much material available on your web site. You obviously care deeply about the craft and teaching others.

What people have said about Insight-Live

  • Your site is amazing and your videos too. Such an inspiration.
  • Just to let you know your wealth of information and knowledge on digitalfire is second to none and very Impressive.
  • I am a big fan of your work. I want to thank you for being there when I have needed and hopefully I will be able to carry on without much input from you. I will be renewing my subsrciption soon and I extol the virtues of the program (and now the Cloud version) to everyone that will listen.
  • I join others (I'm sure) in thanking Tony for the incredible resource that is the digital fire library, and for the insight glaze calculation software and now website. Not a week goes by when I don't use all three of them and usually quite extensively.
  • Having explored and taken lots of advice from your site, I just wanted to say what a brilliant and informative site it is.
  • Tony, I looked at Insight Live today more carefully. It is quite an accomplishment! Congrats to you!
  • First off, I want to thank you for building Digitalfire. It is an incredibly valuable ceramic resource., All Rights Reserved
Privacy Policy